The Infectious Disease Evolution Across Scales RCN seeks applicants for research exchanges and workshops
The NSF-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) focusing on infectious disease evolution is excited to fund several research exchanges as well as annual workshops. The RCN is focused on integrating new theoretical and empirical tools for the study of infectious diseases across scales of biological organization, with the goal of bridging the existing knowledge gap in this field. Network activities will build collaborations among microbiologists, immunologists, epidemiologists and evolutionary biologists via both workshops and research exchanges. If you are interested in applying to either visit our website: http://ideas.princeton.edu/
Research exchanges are short-term (<3 week) exchanges allowing researchers the opportunity READ MORE »
The deadlines for mini-symposia suggestions (Feb 16) and for standard abstracts (Mar 30) are approaching!
Clicking the picture to the right for full info
Evolutionary Medicine Conference: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Human Health and Disease
July 30 – August 1, 2015
Institute of Evolutionary Medicine (IEM) University of Zurich, Switzerland
This international conference will bring together distinguished keynote speakers as well as experts from different research areas (including medicine, anthropology, molecular/evolutionary biology, paleopathology, archaeology, epidemiology, and other fields) to debate the evolutionary origins of diseases and on how the knowledge of the past informs the present and the future. Furthermore, the specific implications of interdisciplinary research in the understanding and management of human health issues will be addressed.
The $5,000 Prize will be awarded to the first author of the most significant article published in 2015 in the Society’s flagship journal, Evolution, Medicine and Public Health. Oxford University Press publishes the journal open access. Stephen Stearns is the editor. Author’s fees are waived for 2015. All articles published in 2015 will be automatically considered for the Prize.
George C. Williams
The Prize recognizes the contributions of George C Williams to evolutionary medicine, and aims to encourage and highlight important research in this growing field. In a seminal 1957 paper, Williams initiated work on several problems central to medicine, including an evolutionary theory of aging and life history traits including menopause. He did important work on the problem of why sex exists. Perhaps his most lasting contribution is his 1966 book Adaptation and Natural Selection, a critique of group selection that transformed how biologists think about the evolution of sociality. In the 1990′s he collaborated with Randolph Nesse on a series of papers and a book that inspired much ongoing work on how evolutionary biology can help us understand disease and improve human health.
The Society’s Publications Committee, chaired by Andrew Read, will appoint the Prize Committee. The Prize Committee will interpret the criterion of “most significant article” with attention to the focus on major unanswered questions that characterized the work of George Williams. Articles by members of the Prize Committee and their students and close colleagues are not eligible for the prize. Members of the Publications Committee and their students and close colleagues are eligible with special restrictions.
By Ignacio G. Bravo and Marta Félez-Sánchez
Abstract: Papillomaviruses (PVs) are a numerous family of small dsDNA viruses infecting virtually all mammals. PVs cause infections without triggering a strong immune response, and natural infection provides only limited protection against reinfection. Most PVs are part and parcel of the skin microbiota. In some cases, infections by certain PVs take diverse clinical presentations, from highly productive self-limited warts to invasive cancers. READ MORE »
By John W. Pepper, Barbara K. Dunn, Richard M. Fagerstrom, John K. Gohagan, and Nadarajen A. Vydelingum
Journal of Evolutionary Medicine Vol. 2 (2014), Article ID 235678, 8 pages doi:10.4303/jem/235678 (open access)
Unsatisfactory progress in cancer medicine and prevention calls for new research approaches. Research can broaden its view of cancer to include not only specific molecular elements, but also the process that explains their origin and dynamics. This process is Darwinian evolution of somatic cells. Applicable modeling techniques are available from process-oriented systems biology. We review relevant concepts and techniques, and their application to four key open questions in cancer prevention research. Helpful concepts are transferable from classical evolutionary biology and ecology, while useful techniques include computational agent-based modeling. The research questions we review include (1) why do benign neoplasms often progress to malignancy? (2) what is the chronological sequence of molecular events in cancer progression? (3) how can we find reliable molecular biomarkers for cancer? and (4) will evolved drug resistance stymie efforts at a long-term cancer chemoprevention? We conclude that molecular analysis can be usefully augmented with process-oriented systems biology to guide empirical research into the most productive directions.
The 28 articles nominated for the 2014 Omenn Prize by the deadline are listed below. The prize of $5000 will be awarded in March 2015 for the best article published in 2014 in any scientific journal on a topic related to evolution in the context of medicine and public health. The Prize is made possible by a generous donation from Gilbert Omenn to the International Society for Evolution, Medicine, & Public Health. The prize committee is chaired by Sarah Tishkoff; the other committee members are Joe Alcock, Noah Rosenberg, and Alison Galvani. READ MORE »
The International Society for Evolution, Medicine, & Public Health maintains a list of over 500 people who work in areas at the interface of evolution and medicine/public health. The purpose of The Evolution and Medicine Network is to facilitate contact among those with shared interests. If, for instance, you are giving a talk in London, you can quickly find out people there who shares your interests.
If your research or teaching is focused in an area related to evolution and medicine and you would like to make it possible for others to find you please add your information to the list. It will take under a minute.
Illness in breastfeeding infants relates to concentration of lactoferrin and secretory Immunoglobulin A in mother’s milk
By Alicia A Breakey, Katie Hinde, Claudia R Valeggia, Allison Sinofsky, and Peter T Ellison
Evol Med Public Health published 20 January 2015, 10.1093/emph/eov002
We tested the relationship between infant illness and two immune factors
in milk, lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). We found that
milk lactoferrin is positively related to symptoms of illness, suggesting
a responsive pattern, while milk sIgA is negatively related to illness,
suggesting it has a protective role. Milk lactoferrin is positively
related to symptoms of illness, while milk sIgA is negatively related to
illness among Toba infants.
Post-term birth as a response to environmental stress: the case of September 11, 2001
Claire Margerison-Zilko, Julia M. Goodman, Elizabeth Anderson, Alison Gemmill, and Ralph A. Catalano
Evol Med Public Health published 16 January 2015, 10.1093/emph/eov001
The odds of post-term delivery among gestations exposed to the terrorist
attacks of September 2001 in the 33-36th week of gestation were higher
than statistically expected. This finding provides support for our
hypothesis that maternal exposure to stress late in pregnancy may result
in an adaptive response of prolonged gestation.
Iron is a critical metal for essential cellular processes, such as respiration, in both human and microbial cells. Thus, in the context of infection, iron is a high-value cellular commodity and an evolutionist might reasonably expect a metallic tug-of-war between host and pathogen iron-binding proteins or other iron-binding molecules (siderophores). This speculation is impressively supported in a paper published this month (Barber and Elde, 2014). These authors provide strong evidence for positive selection affecting several sites in host (transferrin, Tf) and pathogen (transferrin binding protein A) iron-binding proteins based on a combination of genetic, structural, and functional experimental methods. READ MORE »
The below essay by Andriy Marusyk provides a commentary to a recent article by Wong, et al. pertaining to the mechanisms of chemo/radio and therapy induced cancers. Prevailing views explain therapy-induced cancers by postulating induction of new driver mutations. Whereas several previous reports have challenged this mutation centric view, the article by Wong, et al. is the first report that strongly implies increased selection for p53 mutant clones in secondary malignancies induced by radiation/chemotherapy in clinics.
Cancer evolution: selection matters
By Andriy Marusyk
Cancers arise and progress because of the underlying somatic clonal evolution. READ MORE »
Just published in Evolution, Medicine, & Public Health
Limits to compensatory adaptation and the persistence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria
By Craig MacLean and Tom Vogwill
Evol Med Public Health published 21 December 2014, 10.1093/emph/eou032
http://emph.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/12/21/emph.eou032.abstract?papetoc (open access)
Antibiotic resistance carries a fitness cost that could potentially limit the spread of resistance in bacterial pathogens. In spite of this cost, a large number of experimental evolution studies have found that resistance is stably maintained in the absence of antibiotics as a result of compensatory evolution. Clinical studies, on the other hand, READ MORE »
By Victor J. Thannickal, Yong Zhou, Amit Gaggar, Steven R. Duncan
J. Clin. Invest. 124(11): 4673-4677 (2014). doi:10.1172/JCI74368.
Published in Volume 124, Issue 11 (November 3, 2014) (Not open access)
Abstract: Fibrotic disorders account for an increasing burden of disease-associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although numerous risk factors have been recognized, the etiologies of many of these clinical syndromes have not been identified, and they are often termed idiopathic or cryptogenic. Here, we provide an evolutionary perspective on fibrosis aimed at elucidating its etiopathogenesis. By asking the ultimatequestion of “why” this process evolved in multicellular organisms, we hope to uncover proximateexplanations for “how” it causes disease in humans. We posit that physiological fibrosis-like reactions evolved as an essential process in host defense against pathogens and in normal wound healing. Based on this premise, we reason that pathological fibrosis is related to one or more of the following: unidentified infectious or noninfectious antigens, autoimmunity, impaired regenerative responses, and the antagonistically pleiotropic action of genes involved in wound healing or development. The importance of genetic susceptibility, epigenetics, aging, and the modern-day environment are highlighted. Consideration of both ultimate and proximate causation goes beyond philosophical cogitations, as it will better inform pathobiological mechanisms of disease and aid in the prevention and treatment of fibrotic diseases.
Submission Deadline: January 8, 2015
Notification: January 15, 2015
Evolution, Medicine, & Public Health is the venue for important publications in our field. Publication fees are waived for a short time, author’s instructions are here.
WHAT is the relationship between social status and health?
by Christopher von Rueden in the New York Times December 14, 2014
This is a tricky question. In modern industrialized societies, health certainly improves as you move up the socioeconomic ladder, but much of that trend is a result of health care and lifestyle factors (diet, physical activity) that are associated with income — not relative social position per se.
If you want to see how status affects health, you have to isolate status from material wealth. How to do that? The easiest way is to observe a society in which there is minimal material wealth to contest and where there are limited avenues for status competition.
So that is what my colleagues and I did. For several years, we studied the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia, (read more)
An article published online at the Nature web site on November 24 (Chou et al., 2014) presents a fascinating study of examples in which bacterial genes have found their way to a number of distinct eukaryotic lineages including ticks and mites, gastropod (e.g., snails and slugs) and bivalve mollusks (e.g. clams and oysters), and choanoflagellates (a subset of ptotozoans). Type VI secretion amidase effector (Tae) molecules (encoded by tae genes) can kill rival bacteria by degrading their cells walls when delivered into those competing cells. The eukaryotes cited above all have “domesticated amidase effectors” (dae) genes, all of which are extremely similar to one of the four extant bacterial tae genes. Of the four tae genes found in bacterial species, three have been transferred to one or another eukaryotic genome. READ MORE »