26 May 2015; volume 370, issue 1669
An article in EMPH by Andrew Read and Robert Woods may be the first to document the application of evolutionary principles to make important clinical decisions about a specific patient. Woods, Robert J., and Andrew F. Read. “Clinical management of resistance evolution in a bacterial infection: a case study.” Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health (2015): eov025.
Abstract: We report the case of a patient with a chronic bacterial infection that could not be cured. Drug treatment became progressively less effective due to antibiotic resistance, and the patient died, in effect from overwhelming evolution. Even though the evolution of drug resistance was recognized as a major threat, and the fundamentals of drug resistance evolution are well understood, it was impossible to make evidence-based decisions about the evolutionary risks associated with the various treatment options. We present this case to illustrate the urgent need for translational research in the evolutionary medicine of antibiotic resistance.
A related article in PNAS outlines the opportunities for the clinical application of the principles of evolutionary ecology in the clinic.
The Institute of Evolutionary Medicine (IEM), University of Zurich, is now calling for grant applications. Submission deadline is December 1st, 2015. All relevant details regarding the submission can be found in the call for applications
The 2015-IEM Grant has been awarded to Prof. Dominik J. Schaer and Dr. Jeremy Deuel (Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Zurich) for the following project (abstract):
Evolutionary diversity, competition and adaption of innate defense against hemoglobin toxicity
Hemolytic conditions such as malaria, sickle cell disease or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency had an enormous impact on human evolution. One of the immediate pathophysiologic components of hemolysis is free hemoglobin (Hb), which is released from red blood cells (RBC) that are destroyed within the circulation. An even broader impact of free Hb on evolution must be expected from its pathophysiologic effects at wound sites and during hemolysis associated with certain bacterial infections. The biologic adverse effects that can be triggered by free Hb include vascular dysfunction, oxidative damage and immune response modulation. Mammalian species have an efficient Hb defense system composed of plasma scavenger proteins, such as haptoglobin, and specific macrophage clearance receptors. Evolutionary pressures such as malaria are hypothesized to have distinguished human Hb clearance mechanisms from other species. An alternative and structurally unique system has been identified in chicken, which is considered to represent an ancient species genetically related to dinosaurs. In this project we will compare structural and functional properties of the ancient chicken and the modern mammalian Hb defense systems. These data may shed new light on the role of hemolysis, Hb toxicity and the related defense pathways in human evolution
Special Theme issue on ‘Within-host dynamics of infection: from ecological insights to evolutionary predictions,’ compiled and edited by Olivier Restif and Andrea L. Graham in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Open access during November.
Within-host dynamics of infection: from ecological insights to evolutionary predictions
All articles published in EMPH in 2015 will be considered for the $5,000 George C Williams Prize. Starting in January 2016, publication charges for this open-access journal will be $2,000 for nonmembers, and $1,000 for members of the International Society for Evolution, Medicine & Public Health.
Original Research Article
- Claire E. Margerison-Zilko,
- Julia M. Goodman,
- Elizabeth Anderson,
- Alison Gemmill,
- and Ralph A. Catalano
Post-term birth as a response to environmental stress: The case of September 11, 2001EMPH (2015) 2015: 13 first published online January 16, 2015
This new blog by Prof. Mel Greaves and brought to you by the British Journal of Cancer, provides a forum for the discussion of how an evolutionary perspective is changing thinking about cancer. Highly recommended.
Ducasse, Hugo, Beata Ujvari, Eric Solary, Marion Vittecoq, Audrey Arnal, Florence Bernex, Nelly Pirot, et al. 2015. “Can Peto’s Paradox Be Used as the Null Hypothesis to Identify the Role of Evolution in Natural Resistance to Cancer? A Critical Review.” BMC Cancer 15 (1): 792. doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1782-z.
Carcinogenesis affects not only humans but almost all metazoan species. Understanding the rules driving the occurrence of cancers in the wild is currently expected to provide crucial insights into identifying how some species may have evolved efficient cancer resistance mechanisms. Recently the absence of correlation across species between cancer prevalence and body size (coined as Peto’s paradox) has attracted a lot of attention.
Read More »
Clinical management of resistance evolution in a bacterial infection: a case study
Robert J Woods and Andrew F Read
Evol Med Public Health published 10 October 2015, 10.1093/emph/eov025
This chronic bacterial infection evolved extensive resistance, killing
the patient. Evolutionary science is insufficiently developed to better
manage such life-threatening evolution.
This week’s Newsweek cover story
is about evolution and cancer. It features the work of Joshua Schiffman, who co-authored a 2003 article reporting the first major study of evolutionary biology in the medical curriculum and has since become a leading evolution and cancer researcher.
The article is linked here.
Baba Brinkman to perform at Anímo Leadership High School in Inglewood, CA on Wednesday, September 30, from 2 – 3 PM
Baba Brinkman, heralded by the New York Times as a “must-see off-Broadway performance” has devoted his time and energy to education through the use of rap music. Beginning with performances on the Canterbury tales, he has expanded his repertoire to include full CD’s on: climate change, evolution, medicine and others. These songs teach detailed and accurate scientific principles through humor, visuals, and art.
Through a special arrangement, Baba will be at Anímo Leadership High School on Wednesday September 30th, from 2-3pm. His science-rap performance will teach students about evolution in a way that is both fun and engaging.
Barbara Natterson-Horowitz, UCLA Professor and author of “Zoobiquity”, will also be visiting Anímo Leadership High School on February 8th, for the evolutionary-medicine themed “Darwin Day”.
Living in the far north exposes humans to selection forces that select for specific genes with large effects…and major implications for diet recommendations.
Fumagalli, Matteo, Ida Moltke, Niels Grarup, Fernando Racimo, Peter Bjerregaard, Marit E. Jørgensen, Thorfinn S. Korneliussen et al. “Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation.” Science 349, no. 6254 (2015): 1343-1347.
The indigenous people of Greenland, the Inuit, have lived for a long time in the extreme conditions of the Arctic, including low annual temperatures, and with a specialized diet rich in protein and fatty acids, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). A scan of Inuit genomes for signatures of adaptation revealed signals at several loci, with the strongest signal located in a cluster of fatty acid desaturases that determine PUFA levels. The selected alleles are associated with multiple metabolic and anthropometric phenotypes and have large effect sizes for weight and height, with the effect on height replicated in Europeans. By analyzing membrane lipids, we found that the selected alleles modulate fatty acid composition, which may affect the regulation of growth hormones. Thus, the Inuit have genetic and physiological adaptations to a diet rich in PUFAs.
Also see a very nice related story by Carl Zimmer in the NYTimes.
Carl Zimmer provides fine NYTimes coverage of a recent BioEssays paper by Boddy, Wilson-Sayres, Fortuno, and Aktipis, titled “Fetal microchimerism and maternal health: A review and evolutionary analysis of cooperation and conflict beyond the womb” The paper is open access.
“A Pregnancy Souvenir: Cells That Are Not Your Own” by Carl Zimmer in The New York Times
Recently, a team of pathologists at Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands carried out an experiment that might seem doomed to failure.
They collected tissue from 26 women who had died during or just after pregnancy. All of them had been carrying sons. The pathologists then stained the samples to check for Y chromosomes.
Essentially, the scientists were looking for male cells in female bodies. And their search was stunningly successful. Read More »
Connecting Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health by Nunn, C.L., I. Wallace, C.M. Beall
Evolutionary Anthropology 24: 127-129, 2015. DOI 10.1002/evan.21451 [link]
This report on the inaugural meeting of the International Society for Evolution, Medicine & Public Health hosted by the ASU Center for Evolutionary Medicine, highlights relevant talks and themes including “evolutionary mismatch”, comparative medicine, infectious disease, and the microbiome. The conference drew over 300 scientists and scholars from around the world. Harvey Fineberg, President of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation was the keynote speaker. Rap artist Baba Brinkman’s debut of “The Rap Guide to ^Evolutionary Medicine” was a conference highlight. It is a great teaching resource and well as great entertainment, available free online. The meeting invigorated the field and paving the way for interdisciplinary collaboration, and a second meeting, scheduled for June 22-25, 2016 in Durham, NC. Details will be sent to ISEMPH members this week.
Article text: Many evolutionary anthropologists are actively involved in the emerging field of evolutionary medicine, which is a global, interdisciplinary effort to use evolutionary perspectives to understand and improve human health. Read More »
An article by C.L. Nunn, S.C. Alberts, C.R. McClain, S.R. Meshnick, T.J. Vision, B.M. Wiegmann, & A.G. Rodrigo in BioScience 65(8): 748-749, 2015. doi:10.1093/biosci/biv086
This article highlights the importance of initiatives such as the Triangle Center for Evolutionary Medicine (TriCEM) and The International Society for Evolution, Medicine & Public Health (ISEMPH), and the National Science Foundation– supported National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) in stimulating research and providing education and outreach in the field of evolutionary medicine.
Ecological and evolutionary perspectives are essential for understanding human health. Consider, for example, the Ebola virus, which is thought to erupt from bat populations through contact among humans, bats, and other wildlife. In the ongoing outbreak in West Africa, the index case was a 2-year-old boy who may have played in and around a tree that was home to a colony of bats (Saéz et al. 2015). Thus, interactions between humans and wildlife in a highly disturbed ecological habitat probably served as the spark that ignited this epidemic that has killed more than 20,000 people (Baize et al. 2014). Every transmission of the Ebola virus to a new host represents an opportunity for natural selection and therefore for evolution of the virus. Some strains have longer chains of transmission, with more mutations, enabling viruses to discover more fit phenotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the great extent of evolutionary change that occurred early in this latest epidemic, with 73 nonsynonymous substitutions among 78 infected individuals (link to full article)
Yet another fabulous video of a talk at ESEB in Lausanne last week.
Dan Tawfik, Weizmann Institute of Science, on “How do proteins evolve?”
The European Society for Evolutionary Biology meeting in Lausanne last week featured scores of talks relevant to evolution and medicine, including at least a dozen on cooperation in microbes. Who would have guessed that Bill Hamilton’s ideas would prove crucial to understanding biofilms and antibiotic resistance? In a stunning keynote, Kevin Foster reviews how microbes cooperate, and the strategies they use to keep defectors in check. Every health professional who treats infections should watch the video, and everyone else will want to, it is that fascinating.
Mel Greaves, The Institute of Cancer Research
July 20, 2015, doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-15-0439 Full Text PDF
Our understanding of cancer is being transformed by exploring clonal diversity, drug resistance, and causation within an evolutionary framework. The therapeutic resilience of advanced cancer is a consequence of its character as a complex, dynamic, and adaptive ecosystem engendering robustness, underpinned by genetic diversity and epigenetic plasticity. The risk of mutation-driven escape by self-renewing cells is intrinsic to multicellularity but is countered by multiple restraints, facilitating increasing complexity and longevity of species. But our own species has disrupted this historical narrative by rapidly escalating intrinsic risk. Evolutionary principles illuminate these challenges and provide new avenues to explore for more effective control.
Significance: Lifetime risk of cancer now approximates to 50% in Western societies. And, despite many advances, the outcome for patients with disseminated disease remains poor, with drug resistance the norm. An evolutionary perspective may provide a clearer understanding of how cancer clones develop robustness and why, for us as a species, risk is now off the scale. And, perhaps, of what we might best do to achieve more effective control. Cancer Discov; 5(8); 1–15. ©2015 AACR.