A new strategy for preventing antibiotic resistance

A new strategy for preventing antibiotic resistance

Novel strategy from the Read group: Use an IV antibiotic but give an agent that binds it in the gut.

Morley, V. J., Kinnear, C. L., Sim, D. G., Olson, S. N., Jackson, L. M., Hansen, E., Usher, G. A., Showalter, S. A., Pai, M. P., Woods, R. J., & Read, A. F. (2020). An adjunctive therapy administered with an antibiotic prevents enrichment of antibiotic-resistant clones of a colonizing opportunistic pathogen [Preprint]. Evolutionary Biology. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.24.059444

Abstract: A key challenge in antibiotic stewardship is figuring out how to use antibiotics therapeutically without promoting the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Here, we demonstrate proof of concept for an adjunctive therapy that allows intravenous antibiotic treatment without driving the evolution and onward transmission of resistance. We repurposed the FDA-approved bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine, which we show binds the antibiotic daptomycin, as an ‘anti-antibiotic’ to disable systemically-administered daptomycin reaching the gut. We hypothesized that adjunctive cholestyramine could enable therapeutic daptomycin treatment in the bloodstream, while preventing transmissible resistance emergence in opportunistic pathogens colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. We tested this idea in a mouse model of Enterococcus faecium gastrointestinal tract colonization. In mice treated with daptomycin, adjunctive cholestyramine therapy reduced the fecal shedding of daptomycin-resistant E. faecium by up to 80-fold. These results provide proof of concept for an approach that could reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance for important hospital pathogens.

Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health Research Articles in 2020

Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health Research Articles in 2020

Below is a list of ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLES published in EMPH so far this year. Covid delays have slowed publication of final pdf versions, but almost all of them are now available.

Fish consumption is associated with school performance in children in a non-linear way: Results from the German cohort study KiGGS 

A LehnerK StaubL AldakakP EppenbergerF Rühli …Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 2–11, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoz038

Spondylolysis and spinal adaptations for bipedalism: The overshoot hypothesis 

Kimberly A PlompKeith DobneyMark CollardEvolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 35–44, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa003

An African origin for Mycobacterium bovis 

Chloé LoiseauFabrizio MenardoAbraham AseffaElena HailuBalako Gumi …Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 49–59, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa005

Kin-based alloparenting and infant hospital admissions in the UK Millennium cohort 

David WaynforthEvolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 72–81, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa014

Evidence for height and immune function trade-offs among preadolescents in a high pathogen population 

Angela R GarciaAaron D BlackwellBenjamin C TrumbleJonathan StieglitzHillard Kaplan …Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 86–99, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa017

Immune function during pregnancy varies between ecologically distinct populations 

Carmen HovéBenjamin C TrumbleAmy S AndersonJonathan StieglitzHillard Kaplan …Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 114–128, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa022

Knowledge and practices regarding antibiotics use: Findings from a cross-sectional survey among Italian adults 

Aida BiancoFrancesca LicataRossella ZuccoRosa PapadopoliMaria PaviaEvolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 129–138, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa028

Lifetime cancer prevalence and life history traits in mammals 

Amy M BoddyLisa M AbegglenAllan P PessierAthena AktipisJoshua D Schiffman …Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 187–195, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa015

Effect of drug dose and timing of treatment on the emergence of drug resistance in vivo in a malaria model 

Mónica M AcostaJoshua T BramDerek SimAndrew F ReadEvolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 196–210, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa016

A test of oscillation in the human secondary sex ratio 

Ralph CatalanoJoan A CaseyTim A BrucknerEvolution, Medicine, and Public Health, Volume 2020, Issue 1, 2020, Pages 225–233, https://doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoaa012

Sex Differences in Immunity

Sex Differences in Immunity

Wednesday, 09.12.2020, 13.00 – 16.30, online event sponsored by the Zurich Institute for Evolutionary Medicine: Sex Differences in Immunity and the Trade-Off between Immune Defense and Autoimmunity from an Evolutionary Perspective

This is a public online event and participation is free but registration is required to obtain the Zoom-link: nicole.bender@iem.uzh.ch Webpage: www.iem.uzh.ch

Starts at 13:00 with Dr. Nicole Bender (Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland): “Introduction”.

Lafi Aldakak (Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland): “Why sexually transmitted infections are important to the evolution of sex-specific immune competence”.

Dr. Olivia Roth (Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany): “Evolution of male pregnancy and the remodeling of the adaptive immune system”.

Dr. med. Carmen-Marina Mihai (Dept. of Rheumatology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland): “Sex differences in systemic autoimmune diseases: the whos, whats and whys”.

Prof. Dr. Jonathan Henshaw (Institute of Biology, University of Freiburg, Germany): “Sexual conflict over STIs: can it ever benefit males to infect their mates?”

Prof. Dr. Paolo Dotto (Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Switzerland): “Sexual dimorphism in cancer: intersecting genetic, epigenetic and immune signaling networks”.

Keynote by Prof. Dr. Kenneth Buetow (School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, USA): “The pregnancy compensation hypothesis: an explanation for sex differences in human disease risk.”

PD Dr. Nicole Bender (Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland): “Closing remarks”.

EvMed Double-header Tuesday

EvMed Double-header Tuesday

Nov 17 at 11 am ET: ClubEvMed Social immunity: cooperative disease defense in social insect colonies with Sylvia Cremer https://sites.duke.edu/clubevmed/upcoming/

Nov 17 at noon ET: HBES Roundtable discussion on Life History Theory as Applied to Inter-Individual Variation. https://www.crowdcast.io/e/hbes-roundtable-seminar/2 with Marco Del Giudice, Keelah Williams, Daniel Nettle, and Rebecca Sear, moderated by Willem Frankenhuis. https://www.crowdcast.io/e/hbes-roundtable-seminar/2

Both are free, but advance registration is required

ClubEvMed Tuesday, November 17th at 11am EST

Join us for a presentation by Sylvia Cremer, Professor at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria, followed by a conversation with Nathalie Stroeymeyt, Senior Lecturer at the University of Bristol, and Chris Pull, Lecturer at the University of Oxford. Infectious disease can easily spread when hosts live in social groups. On the other hand, the members of social groups can fight disease together. The social insects — the social bees and wasps, ants and termites — have evolved a special form of social group living: the colony. Dr. Cremer will present how ant colonies are protected against disease by the combination of the individual immune defenses of all colony members and their collective hygiene behaviors performed jointly or towards one another. This social immunity is achieved by cooperative actions to reduce pathogen load of the colony and to prevent transmission along the social interaction networks of colony members. Attendees are encouraged to read Cremer 2019, “Social immunity in insects,” Stroeymeyt et al. 2018, “Social network plasticity decreases disease transmission in a eusocial insect,” and Konrad et al. 2012 “Social transfer of pathogenic fungus promotes active immunization in ant colonies.” Sign up here for the meeting link.

New PhD Program at Baylor

New PhD Program at Baylor

The Department of Anthropology at Baylor University is accepting student applications for a new PhD program in the Anthropology of Health (broadly conceived, including biomedical anthropology, evolutionary medicine, global health, medical anthropology, and other applied disciplines to understand past, present, and future populations). The program emphasizes training in quantitative and qualitative methods, values diversity and inclusion, and aims to prepare graduates for jobs in academia, research, business or industry, government, and other vocations.

Unique aspects of the program include:

  • An emphasis on mixed methods in both field and laboratory settings
  • Rigorous training in statistical methods
  • Required electives in communication and management
  • Targeted pedagogical and professional skills training
  • Required internship with a local community organization
  • An emphasis on professional publishing prior to graduation
  • A small program with multiple advisors for each student

Benefits include five years of guaranteed funding for each student, guaranteed funding for professional travel and research, newly renovated facilities with a world-class core laboratory, diverse research groups focusing on a variety of health-related topics with multiple field sites, and a supportive institution known for research in global and community health.

Please visit: https://www.baylor.edu/anthropology/

For questions, please email: michael_muehlenbein@baylor.edu