The 1966 publication of Adaptation and Natural Selection by George Williams was a milestone for biology in general, and a seminal event for evolution and medicine. As Boomsma argues in this article from Current Biology celebrating the 50th anniversary of its publication, ” Adaptation by natural design: Williams’ paradigmatic synthesis is as valid as ever.”  It is a superb summary of why group selection approaches are mostly irrelevant, making clear that “A major theme throughout Williams’ book is that group selection can, under very restricted conditions, produce changes in gene frequency in specific directions, but that it can never yield lasting group adaptations that cannot be better explained as individual adaptations of group members.”