Nietzsche Undone: An Infection that Doesn’t Kill You Can Make You Weaker

The German philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, is known for a number of ideas among which a particularly oft-quoted one is, “That which does not kill us makes us stronger” ( A recent report in Cell (Fonseca et al., 2015) offers evidence that in the context of infection and immunity, the above aphorism may not be a reliable guide to reality. (more…)

Microbial Warfare and the Ecological Dynamics of Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease

In a previous EMR post from December 30 of 2014 (see link below), I discussed a study (Science, 2014) that offered evidence for reciprocal selection of host and pathogen iron-binding proteins arising out the competition for their shared ligand, which is critical to the metabolisms of both parties to the conflict. A recent paper (J. Bacteriol., 2015) by Filkins et al. demonstrates another sort of competition focused on the acquisition of iron that can affect human health. This conflict occurs between two species of bacterial pathogen associated with lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. (more…)

Fighting HIV Evolution with an Evolved Therapeutic Agent: Phase I Dose Escalation Clinical Trial of a Potent Broadly Neutralizing Human Antibody

In previous commentaries (;;, I have discussed the critical role of extensive B-cell and immunoglobulin gene evolution in generating broadly neutralizing antibodies for HIV-1.  Of course, the unprecedented magnitude of antibody evolution necessary to achieve potent neutralization of a high percentage of HIV strains reflects the unprecedented evolutionary plasticity of HIV that originates in both high mutation and recombination rates for the HIV genome (Korber et al., 2001).  A new study by Caskey et al. (Nature, 2015) from the Nussenzweig Laboratory reports results for a first-in-human dose escalation phase I clinical trial of a human monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the HIV envelope (env) protein. (more…)

A Functional Classification of Genomic Elements Informed by the Principles of Evolution

In an EMR commentary ( from March two years ago, I discussed issues related to the functional classification of genomic DNA sequences that arose in the context of claims from the ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) consortium.  A particular focus of that piece was an article by Graur and colleagues (2013) that offered an often humorous but rather stinging critique of the definition of “function” applied by the ENCODE authors to genomic DNA sequences.  Graur and two of his associates have now published (2015) an interesting and valuable functional classification of genomic sequences that is critically informed by their understanding of evolution. (more…)