Feed on
Posts
Comments

Category Archive for 'evolutionary medicine'

Figure1 By Alcock, Joe, Maley, Carlo C., & Aktipis, C. Athena. (2014). Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms. Bioessays, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1002/bies.201400071 See a nice commentary by Carl Zimmer in the NYTimes. Abstract: Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to […]

Read Full Post »

By  Apari P, de Sousa JD, Müller V (2014) . in PLoS Pathog 10(8): e1004111. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004111 In this Opinion piece we argue that the tendency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to cause infertility is likely to reflect an evolutionary adaptation of the pathogens. We use an evolutionary perspective to understand how STI pathogens may benefit […]

Read Full Post »

Adaptive variability in the duration of critical windows of plasticity:   Implications for the programming of obesity By  Jonathan CK Wells  Evol Med Public Health published 5 August 2014, 10.1093/emph/eou019 http://emph.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/08/05/emph.eou019.abstract?papetoc   (open access) Abstract:  Developmental plasticity underlies widespread associations between early-life exposures and many components of adult phenotype, including the risk of chronic diseases. Humans take […]

Read Full Post »

Lively, C. M., Roode, J. C. d., Duffy, M. A., Graham, A. L., & Koskella, B. (2014). Interesting Open Questions in Disease Ecology and Evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S1-S8. doi: 10.1086/677032 Introduction:   Studies on the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases have expanded at an increasing rate over the last several decades (fig. 1). […]

Read Full Post »

Altshuler and colleagues (Nature Genetics, 2014) recently reported a study of about 150,000 individuals representing five different ancestral groups in which they identified twelve low-frequency variants of the gene SLC30A8 through either genomic sequencing or genotyping.  These variants are all predicted to truncate the gene product (ZnT8), a protein involved in zinc transport in beta […]

Read Full Post »

 Many have asked if there are meetings they can attend to learn more about evolutionary medicine and to get up-to-date on the latest advances.  Two just-announced major conferences will meet this need, one in Europe, one in the USA. Both will soon be inviting abstract submissions and meeting registrations. July 30–August 1, 2015 Evolutionary Medicine […]

Read Full Post »

Koren, Gideon, Madjunkova, Svetlana, & Maltepe, Caroline. (2014). The protective effects of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy against adverse fetal outcome—A systematic review. Reproductive Toxicology, 47(0), 77-80. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.05.012 The article considered 2367 articles and selected 16 for inclusion in a meta-analysis. They found dramatically lowered rates of miscarriage and congenital defects in women who […]

Read Full Post »

Missing Microbes

Martin Blaser has written a terrific book, Missing Microbes,  about the dire effects of killing off the useful bacteria we evolved with.   Book excerpt here.  Jane Brody commentary here NYTimes review here and excerpted below. Genes make you … you. But where do they come from? Antibiotics save lives, but their overuse is evolving supergerms […]

Read Full Post »

Wick, G., Jakic, B., Buszko, M., Wick, M. C., & Grundtman, C. (2014). The role of heat shock proteins in atherosclerosis. [Review]. Nat Rev Cardiol,  doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2014.91 (not open access) Vulnerability to atherosclerosis is looking more and more like a result of the trade-off between protection against infection vs. vascular preservation.  Or, is the immune response […]

Read Full Post »

Epistasis refers to the influence of one genomic mutation or variant on the phenotypic effects of another mutation or variant.  Based on available evidence and theory, this phenomenon has a major influence on evolutionary trajectories for organisms of all sorts.  The role of epistasis has been studied primarily in the context of adaptive evolutionary change.  […]

Read Full Post »

The evolutionary paradox and the missing heritability of schizophrenia by van Dongen, J., & Boomsma, D. I. (2013). American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 162(2), 122-136. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32135 Schizophrenia is one of the most detrimental common psychiatric disorders, occurring at a prevalence of approximately 1%, and characterized by increased mortality and reduced reproduction, especially in […]

Read Full Post »

An iTunes version of the course by Steve Stearns is now available free online, with vast supplementary material that is not available in the YouTube version.    To subscribe, launch the course on iTunes, or go to this site   Course Description

Read Full Post »

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects many different vertebrate species asexually and undergoes a sexual cycle after infecting cats (http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/toxoplasmosis/, 2013).  Parasite oocysts are potentially introduced into the human environment in cat feces.  T. gondii is of interest in clinical medicine because humans can serve as accidental intermediate hosts when they ingest […]

Read Full Post »

After almost two years as an unofficial medical student interest group the Evolutionary Medicine Group at the Louisiana State University  School of Medicine in New Orleans  has gained official recognition by the institution.  If you know of other groups of medical students who are meeting to talk about evolutionary medicine, please add information as a comment below […]

Read Full Post »

45 lectures from the Yale Evolutionary Medicine course taught by Stephen Stearns are now available online, open access on a special You Tube channel. This is a complete course, with high production values,  by a world leader in the field. The lecture segments are 6 to 26 minutes in length, well suited to insertion into lectures […]

Read Full Post »

The Placental Microbiome

The placenta was long thought to be sterile, but a new study finds nucleic acid signatures of multiple species in a pattern similar to that in the oral cavity. PlacentalMicrobiome K. Aagaard, J. Ma, K. M. Antony, R. Ganu, J. Petrosino, J. Versalovic, The Placenta Harbors a Unique Microbiome. Sci. Transl. Med. 6, 237ra65 (2014). A report in Nature by Katia […]

Read Full Post »

An innovative format, Clinical Briefs cover crucial topics in just a page. They are available as html, or pdf format. All are open access.  See below and here for the first few published. Editorial Gillian Bentley Editorial Full Text (HTML) Full Text (PDF)   Elspeth V. Best and Mark D. Schwartz Fever

Read Full Post »

The mathematician versus the malignancy An engaging story about using mathematical models to improve chemotherapy.  By Elie Dolgin Nature Medicine 20, 460–463 (2014) doi:10.1038/nm0514-460 (open access) The way in which people receive cancer therapy is pretty much the same as it’s been for decades: researchers determine the highest dose of a drug or treatment that […]

Read Full Post »

A report from the American Academy of Microbiology that is clear, short and engaging, and open access. Executive Summary Do you think the oncologists at a cutting-edge research hospital ever sit down with local farmers? Do you think the pharmaceutical researchers developing the next generation of anti-HIV drugs spend any time with the plant scientists […]

Read Full Post »

Germline Selection

Spermatogonial stem cells replicate and produce sperm throughout adult life, while oocyte precursors complete all of their mitotic cell divisions during fetal development and primary oocytes are arrested in meiosis at birth. Because many more rounds of cell division occur in spermatogenesis than in oogenesis, the incidence of germline mutations, and particularly of single base […]

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »