New articles in Evolution, Medicine & Public Health

After a long history of applying the sterile insect technique to suppress populations of disease vectors and agricultural pests, there is growing interest in using genetic engineering both to improve old methods and to enable new methods. The two goals of interventions are to suppress populations, possibly eradicating a species altogether, or to abolish the vector’s competence to transmit a parasite. New methods enabled by genetic engineering include the use of selfish genes toward either goal as well as a variety of killer-rescue systems that could be used for vector competence reduction premarin 0.625mg. This paper reviews old and new methods with an emphasis on the potential for evolution of resistance to these strategies. Established methods of population suppression did not obviously face a problem from resistance evolution, but newer technologies might. Resistance to these newer interventions will often be mechanism-specific, and while it is too early to know where resistance evolution will become a problem, it is at least possible to propose properties of interventions that will be more or less effective in blocking resistance evolution.

John H McCullough nexium 20mg

Clinical Brief:  Iron Restriction  Full Text (PDF)

Amber Gigi Hoi and   Luseadra McKerracher
Clinical Brief:  Breastfeeding and infant growth 
Full Text (PDF)

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Causes and consequences of coagulation activation in sepsis: an evolutionary medicine perspective

By Maiara Marx Luz Fiusa, Marco Antonio Carvalho-Filho1, Joyce M Annichino-Bizzacchi and Erich V De Paula
Published in BMC Med. 2015 May 6;13(1):105. doi: 10.1186/s12916-015-0327-2. (open access)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Coagulation and innate immunity have been linked together for at least 450 million years of evolution. Sepsis, one of the world’s leading causes of death, is probably the condition in which this evolutionary link is more evident. However, the biological and the clinical relevance of this association have only recently gained the attention of the scientific community.

DISCUSSION: During sepsis, (more…)

Stearns – Medzhitov textbook to be published in August

Evolutionary Medicine 
Stephen C. Stearns, the Edward P Bass Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Yale University
Ruslan Medzhitov, the David W. Wallace Professor of Immunobiology at Yale University School of Medicine and an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute

This textbook is intended for use in undergraduate, graduate, medical school, and continuing medical education (CME) courses, aimed at both students and professionals in medicine and public health.  It discusses the evolution of patients and diseases, defenses and pathogens, cancer as an evolutionary process, vulnerabilities created by the evolution of reproduction, mismatch to modern environments, the evolution of mental disorders, and conflicts between the good of the individual patient and the welfare of the population (see brief Table of Contents below and detailed Table of Contents via the following link). This book’s professional illustrations and summaries of chapters and sections make its messages readily accessible.

To view Chapter 5 and the detailed Table of Contents visit the ‘Sample Content’ link:
http://www.sinauer.com/evolutionary-medicine-704.html (more…)

Zurich EvMed meeting: Travel support available, Abstracts due NOW

 

Travel support for this meeting is available from Tri-CEM, the new evolutionary medicine Center at Duke University directed by Charlie Nunn.

The abstract deadline is NOW!

Evolutionary Medicine Conference: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Human Health and Disease

July 30 – August 1, 2015
Institute of Evolutionary Medicine (IEM)
University of Zurich, Switzerland

This international conference will bring together distinguished keynote speakers as well as experts from different research areas (including medicine, anthropology, molecular/evolutionary biology, paleopathology, archaeology, epidemiology, and other fields) to debate the evolutionary origins of diseases and on how the knowledge of the past informs the present and the future. Furthermore, the specific implications of interdisciplinary research in the understanding and management of human health issues will be addressed.

All abstracts for mini-symposia, oral and poster presentations will be reviewed by a scientific committee and – when accepted – published in the Journal of Evolutionary Medicine. The best student abstract will be awarded a prize by the scientific committee. Students can also apply for a competitive travel grant.

 

This is the sister meeting to the recent meeting of the International Society for Evolution, Medicine and Public Health at Arizona State University’s Center for Evolution and Medicine 

An evolutionary strategy for treating metastases

Divergent and convergent evolution in metastases suggest treatment strategies based on specific metastatic sites

By Jessica J. Cunningham, Joel S. Brown, Thomas L. Vincent, and Robert A. Gatenby

In Evol Med Public Health published 20 March 2015, 10.1093/emph/eov006   (open access)

Abstract: Cancer cells, although maximally fit at their primary site, typically have lower fitness on the adaptive landscapes offered by the metastatic sites due to organ-specific variations in mesenchymal properties and signaling pathways. Clinically evident metastases will exhibit time-dependent divergence from the phenotypic mean of the primary population as the tumor cells evolve and adapt to their new circumstances. In contrast, tumors from different primary sites evolving on identical metastatic adaptive landscapes exhibit phenotypic convergence so that, for example, metastases in the liver from different primary tumors will evolve toward similar adaptive phenotypes. The combination of evolutionary divergence from the primary cancer phenotype and convergence towards similar adaptive strategies in the same tissue cause significant variations in treatment responses particularly for highly targeted therapies. This suggest that optimal therapies for disseminated cancer must take into account the site(s) of metastatic growth as well as the primary organ.