Blumstein, D. T., Johnson, N. A., Katz, N. D., Kharpatin, S., Ortiz-Ross, X., Parra, E., & Reshke, A. (n.d.). Biological lessons for strategic resistance management.

Abstract

Biological resistance to pesticides, vaccines, antibiotics, and chemotherapies creates huge costs to society, including extensive morbidity and mortality. We simultaneously face costly resistance to social changes, such as those required to resolve human–wildlife conflicts and conserve biodiversity and the biosphere. Viewing resistance as a force that impedes change from one state to another, we suggest that an analysis of biological resistance can provide unique and potentially testable insights into understanding resistance to social changes. We review key insights from managing biological resistance and develop a framework that identifies seven strategies to overcome resistance. We apply this framework to consider how it might be used to understand social resistance and generate potentially novel hypotheses that may be useful to both enhance the development of strategies to manage resistance and modulate change in socio-ecological systems.